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【转】坂本一成 《“封闭的盒子”“符号的表达”和“即物性”》

转自: https://site.douban.com/271387/widget/notes/191289352/note/542168251/

封闭的盒子是“堡垒”

“现代的空间是封闭的世界”,这是我一个简单的直觉。自1968年以来,我的作品的基本主题是封闭的盒子。并且,在我的设计中,我也在不断审视“封闭的盒子”的意义。刚开始,“封闭的盒子”是我对空间的理解的一个固定组成部分。换句话来说,当我想要在在一个盒子中组织一个世界时,它提供了一种想法,使得这种空间形式得以实现。将自然光引入一个高高的密室,人们的日常生活在此上演。作为世界和社会内容和自我与周围联系的一种反映,我开始思考它的意识。它是自然的,在某种意义上,让一个建筑师把所有关于一个世界的概念放入一个特定框架的空间中。

对于一些评论家而言,“封闭的盒子”似乎是对外部混乱而且不断恶化的城市环境抵抗的象征。那是否意味着,当外部的环境是一个广阔美好的郊野时,我们便可以抛弃盒子的概念了呢?我曾经有机会参与一个外环境较好的住宅开发项目,但即便是那样的环境,一个“开放的空间”也无法提供一种真实感。这种环境下“封闭的盒子”表面上看是一个防御型的空间,即便环境的条件表面上可以增加空间的真实感,但它并不是其存在的直接原因,一个空间显然是存在于它与周围的现代社会及文化世界的联系中。因此,我们可以说,“封闭的盒子”是防御现代社会中混乱和矛盾的文化世界的堡垒。

The Closed box is a “fortress”

The Fundamental subject of my work since 1968 has been the closed box, a play on my own quite simple intuition that “contemporary space is a closed world”; and my designs have since advanced as a continued interrogation of the meaning of the closed box. Initially, it was a fixed part of my spatial understanding. In other words, the “closed box” was offered as a method towards a realization of a spatial form embodying the desire to organize a world within the interior of a literal box; and there, by conducting natural light into a tall, closed chamber, to stage daily life. I came to think of this consciousness as a reflecting of the conditions of the world and society, the sum of relationships surrounding the self. It is natural, in a sense, for an architect to enclose one’s work as space within a fixed frame and deposit within it all the concepts that are one’s world.
To some critics, it seems the “closed box” is one example of a defensive posture for the residence against the confused and deteriorating urban environment. Does this imply that one abandons the closed box when designing in the better environment of a large plot in the suburbs? I have had the opportunity to design in a housing development with a relatively good environment, but, even in that environment, and “open space” with never possess a feeling of reality. Granted, the literal attitude of the “closed box” placed in that environment is probably that of a defensive space. However, while the conditions of that environment might increase the seeming authenticity of that space, they do not directly become the reason for existence. It is clearly a space that exists within relation to the conditions of contemporary society and culture. For this reason, one can say that the “closed box” is a fortress against the confused and contradictory cultural world of contemporary society.


《散田の家》 1969年 摄影:新倉孝雄

“符号的表达”和“即物性”

随着“符号的表达”,“封闭的盒子”逐渐变得真实具体。“符号的表达”是将实际的平面空间化。更进一步说,“封闭的盒子”抽象化空间,而“符号的表达”具象化空间,这即是关系的空间化。

“符号的表达”的出发点也是一个简单的概念,“封闭的盒子”内部包含房间功能的小体块,通过平面的方式将住宅具体化。当然,我不是对这些小体块的功能感兴趣,吸引我的是“封闭的盒子”被这些小体块切割后的剩余空间,我称之为“主空间”。因此我思考的核心是“主空间”之间的关系以及如何将众多小体块组合成住宅。起初,在众多不同的方法中,我认为形成这些“关系”的是“符号化”。最终,我将住宅内各具体组成部分的构成手法称为“符号的处理”,这些就是我关于“符号的表达“的最初构想。然而,这种构成的想法非常含糊并可能演变成为毫无意义的形式主义。因此,在“主空间”内,我试图构建一个用简要形式展现整个住宅的区域,即“以主体形式辅助空间”, 因为空间直接体现了住宅的构成关系。这就是我所说的“符号的表达”,也是每个设计高度空间化的意义。然而空间无法完美具体体现真实性,因为它源于空间化的“符号的表达”的抽象意义。这让我开始思考,空间可能还需要一个更具象的形式来表达。

空间不是虚构的,是显而易见的,是简单存在的一个自我表达,正如空间不在现实以外存在。在建筑中,空间是事物存在和构成的直接体现,完全抹去了由感情和知觉带来的不真实性。如果这个是空间的“即物性”,我期待从即物性中看到一个纯粹的世界,超脱会扰乱空间的感情和知觉。从某种意义上,我们可以认为“封闭的盒子”和“符号的表达”将空间模式提炼为“即物性”。因此,“住宅”可以被认为是实现建筑的最佳方式。

“Semiotic Expression” and “Literalness”

The “closed box” is made real in the accompaniment of “semiotic expression’. The “semiotic expression” then is the spatialization (kukan-ka) of the actual plan. Furthermore, the “closed box” gives position to abstract space (kukan), and “semiotic expression” gives position to concrete space (supeisu). Thus the spatialization of “relationship”.
With “semiotic expression” as well, a simple conception was the departure point. The “closed box”, by enclosing on the interior the small boxes that are the rooms, materializes the residence as plan. Of course, what I am interested in is not the content of those small boxes, but rather the remainder of the space in the “closed box” that is cut up by these small boxes and called the “main space”. Therefore what is always at the center of my consciousness is the “relationship” between the “main space” and the method for making the residence from the various small boxes that are “closed boxes”. Therefore, in the beginning, I thought that what produced those “relations” was the “semiotification” (kigou-ka) of those various methods. To that end, I called the disposition of the methods that are the concrete compositional elements of the residence one kind of “semiotic treatment”, and this was my first way of thinking about “semiotic expression”. However, that method of disposition was vague and held the possibility of producing a frivolous formalism. Therefore, I tried to construct within the “main space” an area that expressed the entire dwelling within a condensed form. I called that the “supporting space as the subject”, because it was the space that directly expressed the relations of the organization of the residence. That was what I called “semiotic expression”, and can be thought of as meaning the most highly developed spatialization of each design. However, reality can not be perfectly held in that space specifically because it depends on the abstraction of the spatialized “semiotic expression”. That is where I came to think that perhaps space needed to be expressed as an even more concrete form.
That is, the space that is manifest is not a fiction but expresses itself as a single existence, as a space that exists with no other reality. In other words, within architecture, it erases completely the vagueness based in emotion and perception, and the direct expression of the existence or construction of the thing becomes its own literal space. If that is called the “literalness” of space, I would like to see in that literalness a dry world that transcends the emotion and perception that cloud space. That is, it can be thought in one sense that the “closed box”, with the “semiotic expression”, condenses one spatial paradigm as “literalness”. For that reason as well, the “residence” can be thought of as the best means of achieving an architecture. (1973)


《水無瀬の町家》 内観 1970年 モダンリビング201号掲